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Вещи, о которых мало кто имеет верное представление

Виталий Е. Ермолин, студент холодных вод seminarist
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Куриозный транслатер
Среди "Забавных повестей" Кургановского Писмовника есть такая:

Школьник, принеся чинить сапоги, у коих пробились запятки, говорил сапожнику:
— О, ты, куриозный транслатер, не малым трудом и потом в науке и искусстве такого явного совершенства в починке обветшалых калькументов достигший, приставь мне два семициркуля к моим суппедиторам!

А сегодня в букинистическом магазине я нашел старинную английскую книжку 1825 года - The Percy Aneсdotes, тоже "забавные повести", но по-английски. И там обрел такой анекдот:

In the trial of a man at the old Bailey, for stealing some shoes, in 1796, one of the witnesses for the prosecution. when asked what he was? answered, "A translator."" What?" says the Judge, who perceived, that like some other learned men, the witness did not appear very rich, "a translator of languages?" - "No, my lord." "What then?" - "Of soles, my lord." "Of souls; I do not understand you; do you mean a clergyman?" - "I don't, my lord." "What do you mean, then? what business are you?" - "I am, my lord, a translator; I mends boots and shoes." "You mend boots and shoes! you are a cobbler, then? - "Yes, my lord."

То есть здесь какая-то игра слов, которую я не догоняю. Отчего сапожника называют транслатером?

translate — (разг.) латать, перешивать из старого

Что, серьезно?

Двуязычным словарям обычно верить не стоит, пока их утверждение не подтверждено толковым словарём, написанным носителями языка.

Английский словарь сленга и разговорной речи 1905 года. Внизу слева на странице 490: https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofslan00farmrich?ref=ol#page/490/mode/2up

Отлично, спасибо. Переводной словарь издания 2014 года тащит в себе давно забытый носителями сленг 1905 года, не ведая стыда.

Да, поразительно, что это значение осталось в нашем словаре.


Фантастика. Я не только никогда не встречал такого значения, но и сейчас не могу найти его ни в одном английском словаре, вплоть до самых старых. А в англо-русском откуда-то взялось. Видимо, был какой-то школярский жаргон, общий всей Европе и основанный на латинском первичном значении переноса.

"You are right enough," said a Translator of Soles,{1} who had overheard
Bob's last remark...

1 Translator of Soles--A disciple of St. Crispin, alias a
cobbler, who can botch up old shoes, so as to have the
appearance of being almost new, and who is principally
engaged in his laudable occupation by the second-hand shoe-
sellers of Field Lane, Turn Stile, &c. for the purpose of
turning an honest penny, i.e. to deceive poor purchasers.


Тут скорее во-втором случае религиозный термин - Translation (relic), the removal of holy objects from one locality to another.

Одна из основных форм ремонта обуви - перестановка голенищ сапог на новую головку.

интересно, что...

холява I. 1. спец. в стекольном производстве — выдуваемый трубкой стеклянный цилиндр, который затем расправляют в листы для оконного стекла.
холява II. 1. рег. голенище сапога.
холява III. 1. прост. неопрятный, неряшливый человек; неряха.

Холя́ва "штанина", укр. холя́ва, польск. сhоlеwа, в.-луж. kholowa, нж.-луж. chólowa. Неясно (Бернекер I, 394).

Пошив голенищ считался лёгкой работой, отсюда "халява".

Translation (relic), the removal of holy objects from one locality to another.

Вот все значения глагола translate в OED, и на то значение, которое вас интересует, я также привожу все цитаты:

[Prob. first used in translat(e pa. pple., ad. L. translāt-us, pa. pple. of transferre to transfer. The pa. pple. soon became translat-ed, and translate the verb stem (see -ate suffix3). But the verb may also immediately repr. F. translater (12th c. in Godef.). Cf. also med.L. translātāre (11th c. in Du Cange).]

I. 1.I.1 a.I.1.a trans. To bear, convey, or remove from one person, place or condition to another; to transfer, transport; spec. to remove a bishop from one see to another, or a bishop's seat from one place to another, and, in Scotland, a minister from one pastoral charge to another; also, to remove the dead body or remains of a saint, or, by extension, a hero or great man, from one place to another.

b.I.1.b To carry or convey to heaven without death; also, in later use, said of the death of the righteous.

c.I.1.c Med. To remove the seat of (a disease) from one person, or part of the body, to another. Now rare or Obs.

d.I.1.d Physics. To move (a body) from one point or place to another without rotation: cf. translation 1 f.

e.I.1.e Physics. intr. To undergo translational motion.

II. 2.II.2 a.II.2.a trans. To turn from one language into another; ‘to change into another language retaining the sense’ (J.); to render; also, to express in other words, to paraphrase. (The chief current sense.)

b.II.2.b absol. To practise translation; to make a version from one language or form of words into another; also intr. for pass., of a language, speech, or writing: To bear or admit of translation.

†c.II.2.c To use in a metaphorical or transferred sense: see translated, quot. 1553, and cf. translate a., translation 4. Obs.

d.II.2.d Biol. To use (genetic information in messenger RNA) to determine the amino-acid sequence of a protein during its synthesis; also with the RNA as obj.

3.II.3 fig. To interpret, explain; to expound the significance of (conduct, gestures, etc.); also, to express (one thing) in terms of another.

III. 4.III.4 To change in form, appearance, or substance; to transmute; to transform, alter; spec. in industrial use: of a tailor, to renovate, turn, or cut down (a garment); of a cobbler, to make new boots from the remains of (old ones).

   c 1386 Chaucer Clerk's T. 329 Vnnethe the peple hire knew for hire fairnesse Whan she translated [v. rr. transmewed, transformed] was in swich richesse.    1423 Jas. I King's Q. viii, How that eche estate As fortune lykith, thame will oft translate.    1487–8 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 138 For a man werkyng iij dayes & di. in the house‥in translatyng of the steyer and in mendyng of wyndowes.    1536 Bellenden Cron. Scot. (1821) II. 72 Quhare he translatit the tempill of Apollo in ane abbay of his ordour.    1543–4 Act 35 Hen. VIII, c. 8 No man‥shall cutt mynisshe or translate‥any barrelles kilderkyns or firkyns.    1575–7 Fenton Gold. Epist. (1582) 160 To translate an auncient garment, and reduce him to the present fashion.    1590 Shakes. Mids. N. iii. i. 122 Blesse thee Bottome, blesse thee; thou art translated.    1621 Burton Anat. Mel. i. ii. i. ii. (1628) 40 Nabuchadnezar was really translated into a beast.    1718 J. Fox Wanderer 14, I was waiting in Expectation of my own Change, and wondering‥what Sort of Being I should be translated to.    1815 Q. Rev. Oct. 129 A place near Monmouth-street, where ‘they translate old shoes into new ones’.    1905 Preece & Sivewright Telegr. viii. 194 Varley introduced repeaters at Amsterdam to translate the English double-current system of working into the Continental single-current system.

5.III.5 To re-transmit (a telegraphic message) by means of an automatic repeater.

6.III.6 To transport with the strength of some feeling; to enrapture, entrance. arch.

IV. 7.IV.7 intr. Const. into. To result in, to be converted into, to manifest itself as.

Second Commoner Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but,
as you would say, a cobbler.
MARULLUS But what trade art thou? answer me directly.
Second Commoner A trade, sir, that, I hope, I may use with a safe
conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles.
MARULLUS What trade, thou knave? thou naughty knave, what trade?
Second Commoner Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me: yet,
if you be out, sir, I can mend you.
MARULLUS What meanest thou by that? mend me, thou saucy fellow!
Second Commoner Why, sir, cobble you. 20
FLAVIUS Thou art a cobbler, art thou?
Second Commoner Truly, sir, all that I live by is with the awl: I
meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor women's
matters, but with awl. I am, indeed, sir, a surgeon
to old shoes; when they are in great danger, I

recover them. As proper men as ever trod upon
neat's-leather have gone upon my handiwork.

Отсюда же термин в кристаллографии: трансляционная симметрия.